After having studied Bio-engineering Sciences at Ghent University (1992-1997), Frédéric Leroy (°1974) obtained a PhD in Applied Biological Sciences at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel in 2002, where he continued his academic career at the research group of Industrial Microbiology and Food Biotechnology (IMDO) as a post-doctoral fellow of the Research Foundation Flanders (FWO). Since 2008, he holds a professorship in the field of food science and (bio)technology.
His research primarily deals with the many ecological aspects and functional roles of bacterial communities in (fermented) foods, with a focus on animal products. In addition, his interests relate to human and animal health and wellbeing, as well as to elements of tradition and innovation in food contexts. The research is often of an interdisciplinary nature, involving collaborations with experts in microbiology, animal production, veterinary sciences, social and consumer sciences, cultural anthropology, and food history. He is also a member of the research group of Social and Cultural Food Studies (FOST).
Extra muros, Leroy offers various societal contributions, all being pro-bono. As such, he is an editorial board member of the International Journal of Food Microbiology (IJFM) and the magazine 'Food, Science and Law' (FSL), board member of various academic non-profit organizations, including the Belgian Association for Meat Science and Technology (BAMST; president), Belgian Society for Food Microbiology (BSFM; secretary), and Belgian Nutrition Society (BNS), president of the scientific committee of the Institute Danone Belgium, and effective member of the Advisory Commission for the "Protection of Geographical Denominations and Guaranteed Traditional Specialities for Agricultural Products and Foods" of the Ministry of the Brussels Capital Region.
Leroy's teaching activities include several courses in the field of food science and technology.
The course discusses the nutritional importance of dietary components, with emphasis on their diversity, their digestion and metabolism, and their often controversial effects on human health. The societal relevance and impact of food and nutrition are addressed, with a particular focus on malnutrition, diet-related chronic diseases, and the establishment of guidelines and recommendations. In addition, the industrial importance of nutritional sciences is explored, for instance with respect to their role in food legislation and the targeting of new markets (novel foods, functional foods, nutrigenomics, etc.)
Food chemistry (*)
The societal role of food chemistry is outlined, including its relevance for food fraud and food processing issues. An overview is given of the different macro- and microconstituents of food products, with specific attention to their structual diversity and functionalities, as well as of the major food additives (E numbers). Next, major transformation processes are discussed, including browning reactions (caramelization, Maillard-type reactions, etc.) and the oxidation of fat and protein. Finally, the chemical ideosyncrasies of some major food categories are presented.
Technology of animal products (*)
The course introduces the concept 'meat' and its societal relevance and controversies (cultural effects, health, ethics, sustainability, etc.) The mode of action and structure of muscle are discussed, as well as the physical, biochemical, and microbial processes that occur post-mortem (during cooling, aging, distribution, etc.) The latter aspects are then related to quality, healthiness, and (bio)safety. In addition, the major technological processes involved in the manufacturing of meat products are outlined (salting, fermentation, smoking, drying, and cooking), and situated within the complex framework of tradition and innovation.
Food microbiology and ecology (*)
The course consists of the partims 'Food microbiology and hygiene' (prof. dr. Bruno Pot) and 'Quantitative and predictive microbiology' (see below). The major pathogens and spoilage microorganisms are addressed for different food types, as well as their modes of action (virulence mechanisms, spoilage manifestations, etc.) Also, risks and opportunities for improved microbial control are outlined (including processing, sanitation, HACCP, predictive modelling techniques, etc.)
Quantitative and predictive microbiology (*)
Focus is on the major tools and methodologies needed to simulate and predict the quantitative aspects of microbial behaviour in food environments with respect to growth and/or inactivation and metabolite formation, as well as modelling of microbial interactions and the growth/no-growth interface. Application of this methodological framework is documented for both harmful and beneficial microorganisms. The importance of quantitative and predictive microbiology for the concept of risk assessment is also discussed. Finally, basic concepts of quantitative microbial system biology are outlined (e.g., metabolic control analysis).
Meat products harbour a wide range of microorganisms. Research deals with the biodiversity and community dynamics, ecological aspects, and functional roles of bacteria during meat fermentation. Bacteria of interest include Lactobacillus sakei and the group of coagulase-negative staphylococci, especially with respect to their use of alternative energy substrates, production of bacteriocins, and role in the generation of colour and aroma. Non-fermented meat systems are also studied, in particular cooked ham and the use of bioprotective cultures to delay bacterial spoilage.
The eating of meat is an important bio-social activity. Current research investigates how the procurement, transformation, sharing, and consumption of meat relate to evolving cultural frameworks. Also, the multiple societal dimensions of tradition and innovation in meat science and technology are being explored. The research is of an interdisciplinary nature, involving experts from a variety of disciplines (food science and technology, cultural anthropology, sociology, and food history). See also: FOST.
Certain bacteria confer health benefits to humans as well as to their domesticated animals. With respect to humans, research deals with bifidobacteria and their relevance for intestinal health (e.g., due to the cross-feeding of butyrate-producing colon bacteria). Also, the potential health benefits of fermented foods are being evaluated based on the microbial compositions and their functional activities. Regarding animal health, the controversial role of coagulase-negative staphylococci in udder skin ecosystems is explored in collaboration with the M-team (Ghent University).
Predictive microbiology is usually applied to estimate the growth of pathogens and spoilers in foods. However, the same tool box can also be applied to simulate the growth and metabolic behaviour of desirable bacteria. Research relates to the behaviour of lactic acid bacteria, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and bifidobacteria, with respect to their growth, carbohydrate metabolism, use of alternative substrates, and generation of functional compounds (bacteriocins, conjugated fatty acids, aromas, etc). Food systems of interest include fermented meats, milks, and cereals.
Frédéric Leroy published various book chapters and well over 100 peer-reviewed journal publications, having attracted >8,000 citations (Google Scholar) since his first publication in 1999. Most of the research was published in Q1-ranked journals, situated mainly in the fields of food science and technology and of biotechnology and applied microbiology. His h-index is situated between 36 (Publon/Web of Science) and 43 (Google Scholar). Bibliographic profiles are also available on ORCID, Scopus, Academia, Mendeley, ResearchGate, and Kudos.
Details on the publication record can be found below:
Chapters in books
- Meat and Meat Products. Geeraerts W, Stavropoulou DA, De Vuyst L & Leroy F (2019). In: MA Azcarate-Peri, RR Arnold, JM Bruno-Bárcena (eds.), How Fermented Foods Feed a Healthy Gut Microbiota. A Nutrition Continuum. Springer, Cham, Switzerland, p. 57-90
- Cross-feeding during human colon fermentation. De Vuyst L & Leroy F (2019). In: G González-Ortiz, MR Bedford, KE Bach Knudsen, CM Courtin, HL Classen (eds.), The Value of Fibre: Engaging the Second Brain of Animal Nutrition. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands, p. 313-338.
- Meat in the human diet: a biosocial perspective. Leroy F & De Smet S (2019). In: J Lorenzo, P Munekata, F Barba, F Toldrá (eds), More than Beef, Pork and Chicken – The Production, Processing, and Quality Traits of Other Sources of Meat for Human Diet. Springer, Cham, Switzerland, p. 1-19.
- Food innovation and tradition: interplay and dynamics. Geyzen A, Ryckbosch W, Scholliers P, Teughels N, & Leroy F. 2019. In: CM Galanakis (ed.), Innovations in Traditional Foods. Woodhead Publishing, Duxford, United Kingdom, p. 27-51.
- Approaches to assess the risks/modeling of microbial growth and toxin production. Murru N, Mercogliano M, Cortesi M-L, Leroy F, Condoleo R & Peruzy MF. 2017. In: AY Tamime (ed.), Microbial Toxins in Dairy Products, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NY, United States, p. 229-286.
- Arginine deiminase in microorganisms. Leroy F & Charlier D. 2017. In: JPF D’Mello (ed.), Handbook of Microbial Metabolism of Amino Acids, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, p. 70-80.
- Fermented meats. Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2015. In: B Caballero, P Finglas & F Toldra (eds.), Encyclopedia of Food and Health, Elsevier, Oxford, United Kingdom, p. 656-660.
- Fermentation. Demeyer D, Toldrá F & Leroy F. 2014. In: M Dikeman & C Devine (eds.), Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences, 2nd edition. Elsevier, Oxford, United Kingdom, vol. 2, p. 1-7.
- The influence of processing parameters on starter culture performance. Leroy F, Goudman T & De Vuyst L. 2014. In: F Toldrá (ed.), Handbook of Fermented Meat and Poultry, 2nd edition. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, United States, p. 169-175.
- Metabolomics. Leroy F, Van Kerrebroeck S & De Vuyst. 2014. In: CA Batt & ML Tortorello (eds.), Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology, 2nd edition. Elsevier, Oxford, United Kingdom, p. 780-787.
- Fermentation and acidification ingredients. Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2009. In: R Tarté (ed.), Ingredients in Meat Products: Properties, Functionality and Applications. Springer, New York, United States, p. 227-252.
- Latest developments in probiotics. Leroy F, Falony G & De Vuyst L. 2008. In: F Toldrá (ed.), Meat Biotechnology. Springer, New York, United States, p. 217-229.
- Modelling microbial interactions in foods. Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2007. In: S Brul, S van Gerwen & M. Zwietering (eds.), Modelling Microorganisms in Foods. Woodhead-publishing, Cambridge, United Kingdom, p. 214-227.
- Bacteriocin-producing strains in a meat environment. Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2005. In: JL Barredo Fuente (ed.), Microbial Processes and Products, Methods in Biotechnology, Humana Press (Springer), Totowa, New Jersey, United States, p. 369-380.
- Sakacins. Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2000. In: AS Naidu (ed.), Natural Food Antimicrobial Systems. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, United States, p. 589-610.
- Sausage isolates are favourable candidates for application as bacteriocin-producing starter cultures for sausage fermentation - a case study. Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 1999. In: ACJ Tuijtelaars, RA Samson, FM Rombouts & S Notermans (eds.), Food Microbiology and Food Safety into the Next Millennium. Ponsen & Looyen, Wageningen, The Netherlands, p. 647-652.
Peer-reviewed journal publications
- Should dietary guidelines recommend low red meat intake? Leroy F, Cofnas N. 2019. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, in press.
- Exploring the link between the geographical origin of European fermented foods and the diversity of their bacterial communities: the case of fermented meats. Van Reckem E, Geeraerts W, Charmpi C, Van der Veken D, De Vuyst L, Leroy F. 2019. Frontiers in Microbiology 10:2302
- The application of selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry to follow volatile formation in modified-atmosphere-packaged cooked ham. Geeraerts W, Borremans W, De Vuyst L, Leroy F & Van Kerrebroeck S. 2019. Food Research International 123:601-611.
- Meat as a pharmakon: an exploration of the biosocial complexities of meat consumption. Leroy F. 2019. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research 87:409-446.
- Monitoring of volatile production in cooked poultry products using selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry. Geeraerts W, De Vuyst L, Leroy L & Van Kerrebroeck S. 2019. Food Research International 119:196-206.
- Mapping the dominant microbial species diversity at expiration date of raw meat and processed meats from equine origin, an underexplored meat ecosystem, in the Belgian retail. Geeraerts W, De Vuyst L, & Leroy F. 2019. International Journal of Food Microbiology 289:189–199.
- Non‐conventional starter cultures of coagulase‐negative staphylococci to produce animal‐derived fermented foods, a SWOT analysis. Stavropoulou DA, De Vuyst L, & Leroy F. 2018. Journal of Applied Microbiology 125:1570-1586.
- Species pervasiveness within the group of coagulase-negative staphylococci associated with meat fermentation is modulated by pH. Stavropoulou DA, Demaere H, Berardo A, Janssens B, Filippou P, De Vuyst L, Desmet S, & Leroy F. 2018. Frontiers in Microbiology 9:2232.
- Rabbit meat in need of a hat-trick: from tradition to innovation (and back). Petracci M, Soglia F, & Leroy, F. 2018. Meat Science 146:93-100
- Effect of temperature and pH on the community dynamics of coagulase-negative staphylococci during spontaneous meat fermentation in a model system. Stavropoulou DA, Filippou P, De Smet S, De Vuyst L, & Leroy F. 2018. Food Microbiology 76:180-188.
- Fermented meats (and the symptomatic case of the Flemish food pyramid): Are we heading towards the vilification of a valuable food group? Leroy F, Aymerich T, Champomier-Vergès M-C, Cocolin L, De Vuyst L, Flores M, Leroi F, Leroy S, Talon R, Vogel RF & Zagorec M. 2018. International Journal of Food Microbiology 274:67-70.
- Pervasiveness of Staphylococcus carnosus over Staphylococcus xylosus is affected by the level of acidification within a conventional meat starter culture set-up. Stavropoulou DA, De Maere H, Berardo A, Janssens B, Filippou P, De Vuyst L, De Smet S & Leroy F. 2018. International Journal of Food Microbiology 274:60-66.
- The narrowing down of inoculated communities of coagulase-negative staphylococci in fermented meat models is modulated by temperature and pH. Stavropoulou DA, Van Reckem E, De Smet S; De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2018. International Journal of Food Microbiology 274:52-59.
- Meat in the post-truth era: mass media discourses on health and disease in the attention economy. Leroy F, Brengman M, Ryckbosch W & Scholliers P. 2018. Appetite 125:345-355.
- Variability within the dominant microbiota of sliced cooked poultry products at expiration date in the Belgian retail. Geeraerts W, Pothakos V, De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2018. Food Microbiology 73:209-215
- Microbial ecology and process technology of sourdough fermentation. De Vuyst L, Van Kerrebroeck S & Leroy F. 2017. Advances in Applied Microbiology 100:49-160.
- Animal killing and postdomestic meat production. Leroy F & Praet I. 2017. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 30:67-86.
- Effects of glucose and oxygen on arginine metabolism by coagulase-negative staphylococci. Sánchez Mainar M, Matheuse F, De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2017. Food Microbiology 65:170-178.
- Diversity of the dominant bacterial species on sliced cooked pork products at expiration date in the Belgian retail. Geeraerts W, Pothakos V, De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2017. Food Microbiology 65:236-243.
- Actin proteolysis during ripening of dry fermented sausages at different pH values. Berardo A, Devreese B, De Maere H, Stavropoulou DA, Van Royen G, Leroy F & De Smet S. 2017. Journal of Food Chemistry 221:1322-1332.
- Yogurt's flexible image during its rise in popularity in post-war Belgium. Verriet J & Leroy F. 2017. Appetite 108:132-140.
- Exploring the metabolic heterogeneity of coagulase-negative staphylococci to improve the quality and safety of fermented meats: a review. Sánchez Mainar M, Stavropoulou DA & Leroy F. 2017. International Journal of Food Microbiology 247:24-37.
- Yeast diversity of sourdoughs and associated metabolic properties and functionalities. De Vuyst L, Harth H, Van Kerrebroeck S & Leroy F. 2016. International Journal of Food Microbiology 239:26-34.
- Effect of sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite on protein and lipid oxidation in dry fermented sausages. Berardo A, De Maere H, Stavropoulou DA, Rysman T, Leroy F & De Smet S. 2016. Meat Science 121:359-364.
- Bifidogenic and butyrogenic effects of inulin-type fructans and arabinoxylans. De Vuyst L, Selak M, Moens F, Rivière A & Leroy F. 2016. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 63 (1S):S45.
- Bifidobacteria and butyrate-producing colon bacteria: importance and strategies for their stimulation in the human gut. Rivière A, Selak M, Lantin D, Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2016. Frontiers in Microbiology 7:979.
- Opportunities and limitations for the production of safe fermented meats without nitrate and nitrite using an antibacterial Staphylococcus sciuri starter culture. Sánchez Mainar M, Xhaferi R, Samapundo S, Devlieghere F & Leroy F. 2016. Food Control 69:267-274.
- Inulin-type fructan fermentation by bifidobacteria depends on the strain rather than the species and region in the human intestine. Selak M, Rivière A, Moens F, Van den Abbeele P, Geirnaert A, Rogelj I, Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2016. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 100:4097-4107.
- Advances in production and simplified methods for recovery and quantification of exopolysaccharides for applications in food and health. Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2016. Journal of Dairy Science 99:3229-3238.
- Use of bioprotective cultures in fish products. Cifuentes Bachmann DE & Leroy F. 2015. Current Opinion in Food Science 6:19–23.
- Subtyping of Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolates from milk and corresponding teat apices to verify the potential teat-skin origin of intramammary infections in dairy cows. Leroy F, Van Coillie E, Braem G, Piessens V, Verbist B, De Vuyst L & De Vliegher S. 2015. International Dairy Journal 98:7893-7898. SCI (2014) = 2.008.
- Convenient meat and meat products: Societal and technological issues. Leroy F & Degreef F. 2015. Appetite 94:40-46. SCI (2014) = 2.691.
- Amino acid conversions by coagulase-negative staphylococci in a rich medium: assessment of inter-and intraspecies heterogeneity. Stavropoulou DA, Borremans W, De Vuyst L, De Smet S & Leroy F. 2015. International Journal of Food Microbiology 212:34-40. SCI (2014) = 3.082
- Elements of innovation and tradition in meat fermentation: conflicts and synergies. Leroy F, Scholliers P & Amilien V. 2015. International Journal of Food Microbiology 212:2-8. SCI (2014) = 3.082.
- Process-driven bacterial community dynamics are key to cured meat colour formation by coagulase-negative staphylococci via nitrate reductase or nitric oxide synthase activities. Sánchez Mainar M & Leroy F. 2015. International Journal of Food Microbiology 212:60-66. SCI (2014) = 3.082.
- Identification, typing, ecology and epidemiology of coagulase negative staphylococci associated with ruminants. Vanderhaeghen W, Piepers S, Leroy F, Van Coillie E, Haesebrouck F & De Vliegher S. 2015. The Veterinary Journal 203:44-51. SCI (2014) = 1.755.
- Meat traditions: the co-evolution of humans and meat. Leroy F & Praet I. 2015. Appetite 90:200-211. SCI (2014) = 2.691.
- Protein oxidation affects proteolysis in a meat model system. Berardo A, Claeys E, Vossen E, Leroy F & De Smet S. 2015. Meat Science 106:78-84. SCI (2014) = 2.615.
- Shelf-life reduction as an emerging problem in cooked hams underlines the need for improved preservation strategies. Vasilopoulos C, De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2015. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 55:1425-1443. SCI (2014) = 5.176.
- Bacterial production of conjugated linoleic and linolenic acid in foods: a technological challenge. Gorissen L, Leroy F, De Vuyst L, De Smet & Raes K. 2015. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 55:1561-1574. SCI (2014) = 5.176.
- Coagulase-negative staphylococci favor conversion of arginine into ornithine despite a widespread genetic potential for nitric oxide synthase activity. Sánchez Mainar M, Weckx S & Leroy F. 2014. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 80:7741-7751. SCI = 3.668.
- Fermented food in the context of a healthy diet: how to produce novel functional foods? Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2014. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 17:574-581. SCI = 3.989.
- Invited review: Effect, persistence, and virulence of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species associated with ruminant udder health. Vanderhaeghen W, Piepers S, Leroy F, Van Coillie E, Haesebrouck F & De Vliegher S. 2014. Journal of Dairy Science 97:1-19. SCI = 2.573.
- Alternatives for nitrate and nitrite in fermented meat products: potential contribution of the nitric oxide synthase activity of coagulase-negative staphylococci. Sánchez Mainar M, Weckx S, De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2014. Archives of Public Health 72 (Suppl 1), O4.
- The potential role of arginine in competitiveness and functionality of coagulase-negative staphylococci during meat fermentation. Leroy F, Sánchez Mainar M, Weckx S & De Vuyst L. 2014. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Producción Animal 22:253-256.
- The use of nucleosides and arginine as alternative energy sources by coagulase-negative staphylococci in view of meat fermentation. Janssens M, Van der Mijnsbrugge A, Sánchez Mainar M, Balzarini T, De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2014. Food Microbiology 39:53-60. SCI = 3.331.
- Antibacterial activities of coagulase-negative staphylococci from bovine teat apex skin and their inhibitory effect on mastitis-related pathogens. Braem G, Stijlemans B, Van Haken W, De Vliegher S, De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2014. Journal of Applied Microbiology 116:1084-1093. SCI = 2.479.
- Growth and physiology of bifidobacteria. De Vuyst L, Moens F, Selak M, Rivière A, Leroy F. 2014. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 116:477-491. SCI = 2.479.
- Meat fermentation at the crossroads of innovation and tradition: a historical outlook. Leroy F, Geyzen A, Janssens M, De Vuyst L & Scholliers P. 2013. Trends in Food Science and Technology 31:130-137. SCI = 4.651.
- Community dynamics of coagulase-negative staphylococci during spontaneous artisan-type meat fermentations differ between smoking and moulding treatments. Janssens M, Myter N, De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2013. International Journal of Food Microbiology 166:168-175. SCI = 3.155.
- Unraveling the microbiota of teat apices of clinically healthy lactating dairy cows, with special emphasis on coagulase-negative staphylococci. Braem G, De Vliegher S, Verbist B, Piessens V, Van Coillie E, De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2013. Journal of Dairy Science 96:1499-1510. SCI = 2.550.
- Assessment of the suitability of mannitol salt agar for growing bovine-associated coagulase-negative staphylococci and its use under field conditions. De Visscher A, Haesebrouck F, Piepers S, Vanderhaeghen W, Supré K, Leroy F, Van Coillie E & De Vliegher S. 2013. Research in Veterinary Science 95:347-351. SCI = 1.511.
- A putative transport protein is involved in citrulline excretion and reuptake during arginine deiminase pathway activity by Lactobacillus sakei. Rimaux T, Rivière A, Hebert EM, Mozzi F, Weckx S, De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2013. Research in Microbiology 164:216-225. SCI = 2.826.
- Innovative traditions in swiftly transforming foodscapes: an exploratory essay. Geyzen A, Scholliers P & Leroy F. 2012.Trends in Food Science and Technology 25:47-52. SCI = 4.135.
- Conjugated linoleic and linolenic acid production kinetics by bifidobacteria differ among strains. Gorissen L, De Vuyst L, Raes K, De Smet S & Leroy F. 2012. International Journal of Food Microbiology 155:234-240. SCI = 3.425.
- Species diversity and metabolic impact of the microbiota are low in spontaneously acidified Belgian sausages with an added starter culture of Staphylococcus carnosus. Janssens M, Myter N, De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2012. Food Microbiology 29:167-177. SCI = 3.407.
- Expression of the arginine deiminase pathway genes in Lactobacillus sakei is strain dependent and is affected by environmental pH. Rimaux T, Rivière A, Illeghems K, Weckx S, De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2012. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 78:4874-4883. SCI = 3.678.
- Culture-independent exploration of the teat apex microbiota of dairy cows reveals a wide bacterial species diversity. Braem G, De Vliegher S, Verbist B, Heyndrickx M, Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2012. Veterinary Microbiology 157:383-390. SCI = 3.127.
- Microbial production of conjugated linoleic and linolenic acids in fermented foods: Technological bottlenecks. Gorissen L, Raes K, De Smet S, De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2012. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 114:486-491. SCI = 2.266.
- Bacterial diversity and functionalities in food fermentations. Ravyts F, De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2012. Engineering in Life Sciences 12:1-12. SCI = 1.633.
- New insights into the citrate metabolism of Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 and its possible impact on the production of fermented dairy products. De Vuyst L, Vaningelgem F, Ghijsels V, Tsakalidou E & Leroy F. 2011. International Dairy Journal 21:580-585. SCI = 2.401.
- New insights into the exopolysaccharide production of Streptococcus thermophilus. De Vuyst L, Weckx S, Ravyts F, Herman L & Leroy F. 2011. International Dairy Journal 21:586-591. SCI = 2.401.
- The kinetics of the arginine deiminase pathway in the meat starter culture Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494 are pH-dependent. Rimaux T, Vrancken G, Pothakos V, Maes D, De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2011. Food Microbiology 28:597-604. SCI = 3.283.
- Cross-feeding between bifidobacteria and butyrate-producing colon bacteria explains bifdobacterial competitiveness, butyrate production, and gas production. De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2011. International Journal of Food Microbiology 149:73-80. SCI = 3.327.
- The pentose moiety of adenosine and inosine is an important energy source for the fermented-meat starter culture Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494. Rimaux T, Vrancken G, Vuylsteke B, De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2011. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77:6539-6550. SCI = 3.829.
- Influence of temperature and backslopping time on the microbiota of a type I propagated laboratory wheat sourdough fermentation. Vrancken G, Rimaux T, Weckx S, Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2011. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77:2716-2726. SCI = 3.829.
- (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting for the classification and identification of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species from bovine milk and teat apices: a comparison of type strains and field isolates. Braem G, De Vliegher S, Supré K, Haesebrouck F, Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2011. Veterinary Microbiology 147:67-74. SCI = 3.327.
- Linoleate isomerase occurs in lactic acid bacteria strains and is affected by pH and temperature. Gorissen L, Weckx S, Vlaeminck B, Raes K, De Vuyst L, De Smet S & Leroy F. 2011. Journal of Applied Microbiology 111:593-606. SCI = 2.337.
- The effect of heteropolysaccharide-producing strains of Streptococcus thermophilus on the texture and organoleptic properties of low-fat yoghurt. Ravyts F, Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2011. International Journal of Dairy Technology 64:536-543. SCI = 1.107.
- Interactions between bacterial isolates from modified-atmosphere-packaged artisan-type cooked ham in view of the development of a bioprotective culture. Vasilopoulos C, De Mey E, Dewulf L, Paelinck H, De Smedt A, Vandendriessche F, De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2010. Food Microbiology 27:1086-1094. SCI = 3.320.
- Technology-induced selection towards the spoilage microbiota of artisan-type cooked ham packed under modified atmosphere. Vasilopoulos C, De Maere H, De Mey E, Paelinck H, De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2010. Food Microbiology 27:77-84. SCI = 3.320.
- The application of staphylococci with flavour-generating potential is affected by acidification in fermented dry sausages. Ravyts F, Liselot S, Goemaere O, Paelinck H, De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2010. Food Microbiology 27:945-954. SCI = 3.320.
- Production of conjugated linoleic acid and conjugated linolenic acid isomers by Bifidobacterium species. Gorissen L, Raes L, Weckx S, Dannenberger D, Leroy F, De Vuyst L & De Smet S. 2010. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 87:2257-2266. SCI = 3.280.
- Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria to combat undesirable bacteria in dairy products. Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2010. Australian Journal of Dairy Technology 65:143-149. SCI = 0.605.
- Conjugated linoleic acid and conjugated linolenic acid production by bifidobacteria. Gorissen L, Leroy F, Raes K, De Vuyst L & De Smet S. 2010. Archives of Public Health 68 (suppl. 2):S64.
- Peptide extracts from cultures of certain lactobacilli inhibit Helicobacter pylori. De Vuyst L, Vincent P, Makras E, Leroy F & Pot B. 2010. Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins 2:26-36.
- Volatile analysis of spoiled, artisan-type, modified-atmosphere-packaged cooked ham stored under different temperatures. Leroy F, Vasilopoulos C, Van Hemelryck S, Falony G & De Vuyst L. 2009. Food Microbiology 26:94-102. SCI = 3.216.
- The arginine deiminase pathway of Lactobacillus fermentum IMDO 130101 responds to growth under stress conditions of both temperature and salt. Vrancken G, Rimaux T, Wouters D, Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2009. Food Microbiology 26:720-727. SCI = 3.216.
- Environmental pH determines citrulline and ornithine release through the arginine deiminase pathway in Lactobacillus fermentum IMDO 130101. Vrancken G, Rimaux T, Weckx S, De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2009. International Journal of Food Microbiology 135:216-222. SCI = 3.011.
- Kinetics of growth and 3-methyl-1-butanol production by meat-born, coagulase-negative staphylococci in view of sausage fermentation. Ravyts F, Vrancken G, D’Hondt K, Vasilopoulos C, De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2009. International Journal of Food Microbiology 134:89-95. SCI = 3.011.
- In vitro kinetics of prebiotic inulin-type fructan fermentation by butyrate-producing colon bacteria: implementation of online gas chromatography for quantitative analysis of carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas production. Falony G, Verschaeren A, De Bruycker F, De Preter V, Verbeke K, Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2009. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75:5884-5892. SCI = 3.686.
- Coculture fermentations of Bifidobacterium species and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron reveal a mechanistic insight into the prebiotic effect of inulin-type fructans. Falony G, Calmeyn T, Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2009. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75:2312-2319. SCI = 3.686.
- Kinetic analysis of growth and sugar consumption by Lactobacillus fermentum IMDO 130101 reveals adaptation to the acidic sourdough ecosystem. Vrancken G, Rimaux T, De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2008. International Journal of Food Microbiology 128:58-66. SCI = 2.753.
- Probiotics in fermented sausage. De Vuyst L, Falony G & Leroy F. 2008. Meat Science 80:75-78. SCI = 2.183.
- Arginine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli: experimental perturbation and mathematical modeling. Caldara M, Dupont G, Leroy F, Goldbeter A, De Vuyst L & Cunin R. 2008. Journal of Biological Chemistry 283:6347-6358. SCI = 5.520.
- Competitiveness and antibacterial potential of bacteriocin-producing starter cultures in different types of fermented sausages. Ravyts F, Barbuti S, Frustoli MA, Parolari G, Saccani G, De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2008. Journal of Food Protection 71:1817-1827. SCI = 1.763.
- Evaluation of the spoilage lactic acid bacteria in modified-atmosphere-packaged artisan-type cooked ham using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. Vasilopoulos C, Ravyts F, De Maere H, De Mey E, Paelinck H, De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2008. Journal of Applied Microbiology 104:1341-1353. SCI = 2.028.
- Use of artificial neural networks and a gamma-concept-based approach to model growth of and bacteriocin production by Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 under simulated conditions of Kasseri cheese production. Poirazi P, Leroy F, Georgalaki MD, Aktypis A, De Vuyst L & Tsakalidou E. 2007. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73:768-776. SCI = 4.004.
- The bacteriocin producer Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471 is a competitive starter culture for type II sourdough fermentations. Leroy F, De Winter T, Foulquié Moreno MR & De Vuyst L. 2007. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 87:1726-1736. SCI = 1.304.
- Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria: production, purification, and food applications. De Vuyst L & Leroy F. 2007. Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology 13:214-219. SCI = 2.588.
- Sugars relevant for sourdough fermentation stimulate growth of and bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471. Leroy F, De Winter T, Adriany T, Neysens P & De Vuyst L. 2006. International Journal of Food Microbiology 112:102-111. SCI = 2.608.
- Functional meat starter cultures for improved sausage fermentation. Leroy F, Verluyten J & De Vuyst L. 2006. International Journal of Food Microbiology 106:270-285. SCI = 2.608.
- Simulation of the effect of sausage ingredients and technology on the functionality of the bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494 strain. Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2005. International Journal of Food Microbiology 100:141-152. SCI = 2.499.
- Interactions of meat-associated bacteriocin-producing lactobacilli with Listeria innocua under stringent sausage fermentation conditions. Leroy F, Lievens K & De Vuyst L. 2005. Journal of Food Protection 68:2078-2084. SCI = 1.687.
- Modeling bacteriocin resistance and inactivation of Listeria innocua LMG 13568 by Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494 under sausage fermentation conditions. Leroy F, Lievens K & De Vuyst L. 2005. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71:7567-7570. SCI = 3.818.
- Modelling interactions between bacteriocin-producing sausage starter cultures or cocultures and Listeria reveals how to improve the efficiency of Listeria killing. Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2005. Acta Horticulturae 674:239-243.
- Lactic acid bacteria as functional starter cultures for the food fermentation industry. Trends in Food Science and Technology 15:67-78. Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2004. SCI = 2.534.
- Effects of different spices used in production of fermented sausages on growth of and curvacin A production by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174. Verluyten J, Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2004. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70:4807-4813. SCI = 3.810.
- Influence of complex nutrient source on growth of and curvacin A production by sausage isolate Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174. Verluyten J, Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2004. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70:5081-5088. SCI = 3.810.
- Enterococcus faecium RZS C5, an interesting bacteriocin producer to be used as a coculture in food fermentation. Leroy F, Foulquié Moreno MR & De Vuyst L. 2003. International Journal of Food Microbiology 88:235-240. SCI = 2.261.
- The stimulating effect of a harsh environment on the bacteriocin activity by Enterococcus faecium RZS C5 and dependency on the environmental stress factor used. Leroy F, Vankrunkelsven S, De Greef J & De Vuyst L. 2003. International Journal of Food Microbiology 83:27-38. SCI = 2.261.
- A combined model to predict the functionality of the bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus sakei strain CTC 494. Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2003. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69:1093-1099. SCI = 3.820.
- Exploring a functional starter culture. Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2003. New Food 6:35-40.
- Modelling growth and bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH1174 in response to temperature and pH values used for European sausage fermentation. Messens W, Verluyten J, Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2003. International Journal of Food Microbiology 81:41-52. SCI = 1.719.
- Modelling contributes to the understanding of the different behaviour of bacteriocin-producing strains in a meat environment. Leroy F, Verluyten J, Messens W & De Vuyst L. 2002. International Dairy Journal 12:247-253. SCI = 1.620.
- Bacteriocin production by Enterococcus faecium RZS C5 is cell density limited and occurs in the very early growth phase. Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2002. International Journal of Food Microbiology 72:155-164. SCI = 1.719.
- Bacteriocin production by Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 in view of its application as adjunct starter in Greek Feta cheese making. Sarantinopoulos P, Leroy F, Leontopoulou E, Georgalaki MD, Kalantzopoulos G, Tsakalidou E & De Vuyst L. 2002. International Journal of Food Microbiology 72:125-136. SCI = 1.719.
- A novel area of predictive modelling: describing the functionality of beneficial microorganisms in foods. Leroy F, Degeest B & De Vuyst L. 2002. International Journal of Food Microbiology 73:251-259. SCI = 1.719.
- Growth of the bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus sakei strain CTC 494 in MRS broth is strongly reduced due to nutrient exhaustion: a nutrient depletion model for the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 2001. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67:4407-4413. SCI = 3.688.
- Modelling the kinetics of functional starter cultures to improve food fermentation processes. Leroy F, Verluyten J, Neysens P, Degeest B, Messens W & De Vuyst L. 2001. Acta Horticulturae 566:363-368.
- Control of bioflavour and safety in fermented sausages: first results of a European project. Demeyer D, Raemaekers M, Rizzo A, Holck A, De Smedt A, ten Brink B, Hagen B, Montel C, Zanardi E, Murbrekk E, Leroy F, Vandendriessche F, Lorentsen K, Venema K, Sunesen L, Stahnke L, De Vuyst L, Talon R, Chizzolini R & Eerola S. 2000. Food Research International 33:171-180. SCI = 0.707.
- The presence of salt and a curing agent reduces bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494, a potential starter culture for sausage fermentation. Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 1999. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65:5350-5356. SCI = 3.541.
- Temperature and pH conditions that prevail during the fermentation of sausages are optimal for the production of the antilisterial bacteriocin sakacin K. Leroy F & De Vuyst L. 1999. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65:974-981. SCI = 3.541.